V. H. Sonowane, Rock Paintings Depicting Stupas in Gujarat, India

In a region where stupas and viharas had been established, stupas depicted in paint on natural rock surfaces in Gujarat, India, as distinct from structural or rock-cut edifices, express the Buddhist ideology of merit: the concept that to produce stupas confers benefits and blessings. Examples discussed here are from Idar and Gambhirpura, sites near each other and on an ancient trade route that connected central and western India, from which travellers could view the paintings.