David Frendo, Sovereignty, Control, and Co-existence in Byzantine-Iranian Relations

The present paper seeks to circumvent and, where possible, surmount some of the difficulties inherent in the desultory and fragmentary nature of the evidence available for the study of Byzantine-Iranian relations. To this end it pursues a more integrated approach than adopted hitherto, which focuses both on the essential differences and the occasional similarities that emerge in the course of many centuries of confrontation, conflict and co-existence between the two neighbouring civilizations of Byzantium and Iran.