Harry Falk, "Making Wine in Gandhara under Buddhist Monastic Supervision"

Fig. 6. Supply of freshly pressed juice from right, filter bag over bowl with lotus leaves left, and man with wineskin in centre. Peshawar Museum, unpublished. Photo: Courtesy Abdul Samad Khan.

Almost all of the aspects of wine-making are found in artistic representation in Gandharan art. The paper gives examples and deals with the question of what wine has to do with Buddhism. The question is inevitable, as there are so many implements necessary for wine-making that have been found in monasteries, most of them donated into the care of the monastery by monks themselves as is clear from their inscriptions. The solution seems to be connected to the question of what function a wine-drinking Pāñcika with his consort Hārītī has to do with Buddhism. An answer is proposed: pre-Buddhist local festivities that included the production and consummation of wine, merry-making, and the adoration of benevolent spirits were partly organized by the monasteries, although outside their premises they were adopted by the artists as an expression of the joys found by those living in the sphere of the gods, i.e. Indraloka, and they seem to have widened the scope of Buddhism as well and paved the way for Tantric Buddhism.